According to Ministry of Water Resources Statement, water level in 91 major reservoirs of India has 20 percent capacity in the beginning of July. This indicates a serious proportion for the coming crisis, and which is affecting daily life in the country, especially in North India. On the condition of water deficit in the country, this mute-part series attempts to investigate why the reserves of Indian are running dry.
Recently a new Commission report imposed an alarm on the emerging water crisis in India. A paragraph in the report explained the crisis: “It is a matter of concern that 600 million people in India face high levels of stress for excessive water in the country. Almost three-fourths of the country’s homes do not have drinking water in their premises, around 70 Percentage of water is being contaminated, and India is 120th in 122 countries in the Water Quality Index. “
Despite giving gifts with a plethora of rivers and lakes, we are not able to utilize our capacity and have adequately kept them adequately enough to meet the water needs. This is bad water management, not lack of resources, which has brought us to this point.
Role of agriculture
in agriculture primarily in the country of agriculture, agriculture uses large amounts of water. Therefore, in order to address the water crisis in the country, the authorities will first have to deal with the unstable practices of farmers’ use of water.
For example, in the end of April, while traveling in Mandya district of Karnataka, I came to the fields of sugarcane almost everywhere. Local residents said that the villages that were being visited were suffering from drought, and it is surprising that they decided to develop sugarcane – a long crop for which large amounts of water (1,500-3,000 liters of water) Kilogram) is required.
As Jayesh Maradi presents to the Agricultural Science Department of Dharwad in his Ph.D. thesis, 60% of the cane growers in Karnataka face shortage of water, which adversely affect their yield. Of those who experienced water scarcity during the sugarcane cultivation, half of the respondents did not take any measures to save moisture in the soil, the scholars mentioned in their research.
This is just one example of how much unstable water usage in agriculture has affected water resources in India, which results in drought-like conditions.
It is well established that India is now producing surplus rice and wheat – both intensive crops of water – and dumping them into Food Corporation’s warehouses. Also, it is ignoring crops like millet and oil seeds, which require less water and can fulfill the growing demand at home.
In April 2016, 13 Indian states were affected by drought, 10 of which were seriously affected (Dhawan, 2017). All the states suffering from drought were those where the intensive crops of rice, wheat, cotton and sugarcane were being grown on a large scale. Irregularities of monsoon have also played a role, but cannot be denied that increasing water-intensive crops increase the crisis.
The most obvious example of this is the agricultural state of Punjab and Haryana, where the water table has fallen to the alarming level. Experts in the report say that earlier, farmers used Maize-wheat or sugarcane-maize-wheat crop pattern, but for the last four decades they went to Paddy Chakra of wheat, thereby causing unprecedented exploitation of ground water for irrigation.
In order to solve this water crisis, Indian policy makers have to encourage sustainable water management in agriculture and in the dry prone areas; farmers will have to encourage them to develop crops which require less water.
Water management agencies require convergence
Most of India’s rivers are polluted. In the list of polluted rivers, the Central Pollution Control Board includes all our major rivers – Ganga, Yamuna, Krishna, Godavari, Narmada, Kaveri, Sabarmati. If the water of the river becomes polluted, then it cannot be used by farmers or for drinking water needs. However, in India, water resources departments of state governments are unsure of addressing pollution, mainly on the expansion of irrigation, construction of bridges and obstacles, and so on.
For example, take the Ganges. Rather than removing the concerns of water flow or increasing pollution, instead of stretching every 100 kilometers of river, there is more interest in the government to create barrage. Along with Ganga, experts have noticed that the construction of sewage treatment plants cannot be overcome by the pollution problem to reduce the flow of polluted wastewater alone, because the increase in water flow in the river is important for reducing pollution load. .
It is now well established that the effects of climate change, such as changes in glaciers and rain patterns, have influenced the water level in our rivers. In 2015, during the Gangatri tour, where the river Ganga emerges, I learned that the Glacier had retreated 3 kilometers in two centuries, and after 1971, the rate of retreat had increased by 22 meters annually. There is considerable deforestation in the vicinity of Gangotri, which has increased the increase in summer, yet no authority of the river has considered it suitable to solve the matter.
Government agencies involved in water management are working in Silo, and it is creating a major hindrance in addressing the water crisis of India. Along with surface water and ground water, there are separate departments for pollution, environment and climate change. Therefore, it is advisable that government agencies that manage irrigation, ground water use, pollution and climate change are gathered under a common head so that the methods can be discussed in which these concerns can be addressed because They are connected.
Management of disputes
Five main rivers in India are in dispute – Sindhu, Krishna, Kaveri, Godavari and Narmada Often in the case of a disturbing controversy, such as in the case of Kaveri, most of the river water sharing between the reparion states, which affects the dependent population. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu are now fighting to control the water of Kaveri for one century. Nevertheless, the court’s fight has not given any meaningful solution to the water-sharing crisis. On June 30, Karnataka again said that it would appeal to the Supreme Court against the formation of the Kaveri Management Authority, which had earlier formed a nodal agency to resolve all disputes between the respective states related to the river.
The communities involved have paid a heavy price on the basis of the courts to resolve political disputes on water. For example, there were three crop season in Tamil Nadu, Kaveri delta – Kuruvai (June-July), Samba (August) and Thaldi (October-November). But due to the decreasing supply of Kaveri water, the farmers grow only a crop every year. The court’s intervention has done nothing to address the real water crisis affecting millions of people and nothing has been done.
The problem with the dependence on the courts is that the attention of the government is overcome by the actual solutions present on the ground to solve the water crisis. In this case, trapping rain water in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, for irrigation purposes, a long way may be possible to store water, but it has been neglected. According to rainwater harvesting expert S. Vishwanath, only 23 percent of rain water falling within the Kaveri basin is stored in Karnataka, while the remaining valuable flows in the direction of the topplus carrying. Officials have not addressed issues such as deforestation in the source area of the river in Coorg, industries that waste the river and the industry to remove wastewater, because both the repairs are busy fighting the court in the state court.
In some years, India is expected to move ahead as China’s most populous country in the world. With this explosive population, our water crisis is only bound to spoil.
As the report of the new Ayod has warned, unless people give more information about the need to preserve and preserve water resources, and the government makes an incentive system to promote such awareness, the problem A little way can be made to solve. It is not that the dying rivers cannot be revived, as Stockholm Water Award winner Rajendra Singh performed in Rajasthan. It is only for the government to see rivers and water bodies, because biological life forms support other life, not as the basis of engineering experiments such as huge dams, barrages and interlinking projects.
A large part of the environmental issues like groundwater mining, river sand mining, industrial pollution and our limited water resources such as plaque a consolidated effort involving an active citizen alone can save us in the coming years.