Koala Genome Consortium, a research group consisting of 54 scientists from 29 different institutes in seven countries, has created the first high-quality genomic sequence for the cola a tree that is the Australian Marsupial living tree, the world One of the most attractive and prestigious mammals.
Koala, which was first seen in the fossil record 350,000 years ago, is the only current representative of the Marsupial family Phascolarctidae and its closest relatives are pregnant. It is found in coastal areas of eastern and southern regions of Australia, which live in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia.
The animal is approximately 24 to 33 inches (60-85 cm) long and weighs 14 kilograms in the southern part of its range, but only north of sub-tropical Queensland in the north.
Virtually interconnected, the body is stout and gray, with a yellow or cream colored chest and motel on the rump. The broad face has wide, spherical, leather nose, small yellow eyes, and large tilted ears.
Koala usually remains in open eucalyptus woodlands and forests, and leaves of these trees form most of its diet.
While species were classified as ‘less anxiety’ on the IUCN red list of previously threatened species, it was selected to be ‘weak’ two years ago.
Current dangers for Koala include consistent housing destruction, fragmentation, and amendments, bushfires, and disease, as well as dry-related mortality in pieces of residence.
University of Sydney Professor Katherine Belov said, “The genome provides a springboard for the protection of this biologically unique species.”
“This landmark has come from our eyes to use genomics to save this species. Genetic blueprints have not identified an asset of data about the cola of Eucalyptus leaves unusual and highly specific diet, rather His immune system also provides important insights into population diversity and the development of cola, “Professor Rebecca Johnson said, Australia Dry Museum Research Institute.
The team got 3.4 billion base pairs in the cola genome and got a sequence of more than 26,000 genes – which makes it slightly larger than the human genome.
Professor Mark Wilkins, director of the Ramaciotti Center for Genomics at the University of New South Wales, said, “Then we gathered the genome with the supercomputer, from which the consortium studied more than 20,000 genes of this unique species.”
Researchers have identified that there are two major expanses of the genes in the genus, which are known as integral part of detoxification, cytochrome P450 genes family of metabolic enzymes.
He expressed these genes especially in many cola tissues in the liver; it shows that they have a very important task in detoxification and potentially Cola is allowed to become a dietician.
Professor Johnson said, “This helped them find their place to survive because they could have trusted the food source, which would not be competing less than other species, which were not able to effectively detoxify.”
Koala was another important discovery of milk structure.
Like most Marsupial, Koala pouches do most of their development. They are born without immune system after 34-36 days of pregnancy and develop pouch for six months.
Professor Belov said that we have identified genes that change Koala to our youth. To meet the needs, the milk protein allows structure to eliminate the stages of breastfeeding.
Genome appears that these proteins may have antimicrobial role, which may include chlamydia percum Bacterial and fungal activity exhibit against a series of species, which is the tension due to oculular and reproductive disease in the colas. “
Chlamydia causes infertility and blindness and severely affects the Koala population in New South Wales and Queensland. Using information obtained from the cola genome, scientists are expected to develop a vaccine to fight diseases such as Chlamydia.
“Apart from Chlamydia, other major infections that threaten species are Koala Retrovirus (KRV), although currently very little is known about it,” said Professor Peter Timmy’s of Sunshine Coast University.
“The complete Koala genome is playing an important role in showing that a person with several versions of the KORV can have several combinations of KRV in his genome. This information will be able to determine which KV strains are more dangerous and to assist in our development of the Coeur’s vaccine. “
The consequences of inbreeding can be extremely harmful to the existence of that Koala population because this reduces genetic diversity.
Professor Johnson said, “For the first time, using more than 1,000 genome linked markers, we are able to show that the New South Wales and Queensland populations show significant levels of long-term connectivity in genetic diversity and areas.”
“To ensure this genetic diversity has been preserved in the concert with other conservation measures to protect the housing, the key to long-term survival of Koala is to reduce vehicle attacks, dog attacks and disease.”