The toughest and most intense problem in Indian history is slow but certainly answered: India-European speakers say they are Aryans, flowing into India at the end of the Indus River civilization in 2000 BC – 1500 BC Bring Sanskrit and a series of unique cultural customs? Genetic research based on a large amount of new DNA evidence is concentrating scientists around the world on a clear answer: yes, they did it.
This may be a surprise for many people – and it is a shock to some people – because the mainstream narrative in recent years has been genetic research that completely refuted the Aryan immigration theory. This explanation is always a bit far-fetched, because anyone who has read the original micro science paper knows it. But now it has completely split in a large amount of new data on the Y chromosome (or from the father’s parental chromosome, from father to son).
Until recently, only data on mtDNA (or maternal DNA, only from mother to daughter) was available, which seems to indicate that the Indian gene bank had almost no external infusions in the past 12 or 500 years. This new Y-DNA data contradicts this conclusion. There is evidence that external inputs to the gene Indian male generation entered this period.
In hindsight, the reason for the difference in mtDNA and Y-DNA data is obvious: there is a strong gender bias in the migration of the Bronze Age. In other words, those who migrated were mainly male, so these gene flows did not really appear in the mtDNA data. On the other hand, they do appear in the Y-DNA data: specifically, about 17.5% of Indian male pedigrees are found to belong to the haplogroup R1a (haplogroup recognition of a single lineage decline), which is spread today in Central Asia, Europe and South Asia. The Pontic-Caspian Step is regarded as the area where R1a has spread to the west and east.
Three months ago, in a peer-reviewed journal called BMC Evolutionary Biology, a paper was published summarizing all recent findings into a close and coherent history of migration in India. In the paper entitled “The genetic chronology of the Indian subcontinent points to a heavy gender-biased dispersion,” 16 scientists led by Professor Martin P. Richards of the University of Huddersfield in the United Kingdom concluded: “From Central Asia The influx of genes into the Bronze Age is strongly male-driven, consistent with the premeditated pastoralist patriarchal, paternal and paternal social structures of the Indo-European society. This is part of a broader process of India-European expansion, with one in the Pontic-Caspian region. The ultimate source, the region spread a closely related Y chromosome lineage across a large Eurasia between 5000 and 3500 years.
In an e-mail exchange, Professor Richards said that the popularity of R1a in India is “very strong evidence that the migration from Central Asia to the Bronze Age is most likely to bring Indo-European communicators to India.” Professor Richards The strong conclusions of its team are based on the work of genetic scientists around the world who rely on their own substantive research and the large amount of new data and research results available in recent years.
Peter Underhill, a scientist in the Department of Genetics at Stanford University School of Medicine, is one of the centers of action. Three years ago, a team of 32 scientists led a large-scale study that mapped the distribution and association of R1a. It used a team of 16,244 male subjects from 126 people in Eurasia. Dr. Underhill’s research found that R1a has two sub-haplogroups, one mainly in Europe and the other mainly in Central Asia and South Asia. Sub-group Z282 consists of 96% of 66a samples in Europe. In the Central Asia and South Asia, 98.4% of the R1a lines belong to the sub-haplogroup Z93. The two groups disagreed only about 5,800 years ago. Dr. Underhill’s research shows that in India’s dominant Z93, it splits into multiple branches. The paper found that this “star branch” indicates rapid growth and spread. Therefore, if you want to know the general period when Indo-European speakers come to India and quickly spread to India, you need to find out the date Z93 split into its own subgroup or pedigree. We will be back here later.
In short: R1a is spread across Europe, Central Asia and South Asia; its group Z282 is only distributed in Europe, while the other group Z93 is only distributed in parts of Central Asia and South Asia; the three main groups of Z93 are only distributed in India, Pakistan. , Afghanistan and the Himalayas. At the end of this clear picture of the expansion of the R1a distribution, this tragedy has begun in India, and then there is an early hypothesis that the outbreak has spread out. This assumption is based on the fact that India’s R1a generation is very different from other regions. As Professor Richards said, “Since the arrival of a large number of genomic Y chromosome data, India’s R1a is largely based on fuzzy microsatellite data, so it has laid the foundation.
Gene mapping migration
Now we know that there are a lot of gene inflows from Central Asia to India in the Bronze Age. Can we better determine the time, especially the Z93 split into its own lineage? We can; The answer to this question was made in April last year: “A total of 1,244 Y-chromosomes were randomly blasted across the globe.” The article examines the main distribution of the Y-DNA isotope. The five continents are led by David Poznik of Stanford University, and Dr. Underhill is one of 42 co-authors. The study found that “the most dramatic expansion in Z93 occurred between about 4,000 and 4,500 years ago.” This is very remarkable, because the civilization of the Indus Valley began to fall apart about 4,000 years ago. (So far, there is no evidence that one person has caused another; archaeology or otherwise; these two events are likely to coincide.)
The proliferation of new data has left many scientists skeptical or neutral about the migration of the Bronze Age to India, which has changed their views. Dr. Anderhill is one of them. For example, in a 2010 paper, he wrote that in the past five or six thousand years, there has been evidence “against a large number of paternal gene flows from Eastern Europe to Asia, including India.” Today, Dr. Underhill said there is no comparability between the 2010 and current data types. “Then, like looking at a dark room from the outside through the keyhole, holding a small torch in your hand; you can see some corners, but not all, not the whole picture. By whole genome sequencing, we can now see the entire room more clearly.”
Dr. Underhill is not the only one whose older work was used against the Indian-European language spokesperson who entered the Bronze Age of India. David Reich, a professor of genetics and genetics at Harvard Medical School, is another person, although he is very cautious in his old papers. The best example is a 2009 study by Reich entitled “Rebuilding the History of Indian Population” and published in the journal Nature. The study “used the theoretical construction of” Indigenous North Indians “(ANI) and” Ancestral South Indians “(ASI) to trace the genetic subsystem of the Indian population. The study proves that ANI is “close to the Middle East, Central Asian and European” genes, and ASI is unique to India. This study demonstrates that most of these two types of compounds can be manipulated in India today. The high caste of the traditions and the Indo-European ANI increase. This study is not contrary to the Indo-European language. If so, it suggests that it indicates the relationship between ANI and the Central Asians.
However, due to this theoretical structure, these groups have reason to argue that India’s European propaganda mission had arrived to India a long time ago from 4,000 to 3,500 years ago thousands of years ago before. In fact, the study raises a strong warning and suggests the opposite: “We remind people that we should be cautious about the ‘models’ in population genetics. Although they provide an important framework for testing historical hypotheses, they are too simplified. For example, as we assumed in the model, the true ancestor population may not be homogeneous, but may be composed of related groups that are mixed at different times. “In other words, ANI is likely to be caused by multiple migrations. May include the migration of Indo-European languages.
Rotation and fact
But how did the research report in the media? “Aryan-Dravidian divides a myth: research,” screamed in a newspaper headline on September 25, 2009. Study Co-author Lalji Singh, former director of the former Sugar and Molecular Biology Center, Hyderabad, states: “This article is rewriting history … North-South is no different. ” The report also issued the following statement: “The initial settlement occurred between the Andaman people 65,000 years ago and the southern part of ancient India, which led to population growth in this part. In the late 40,000 years ago, the ancient The North Indians appeared which in turn led to an increase in the number of people there. But at some point, the ancient north mixed with the old south gave birth to a different population. That is the existing population, the Indian population. There is a genetic relationship between them. “However, this study did not make any such statements – in fact, even the numbers of 65,000 and 40,000 did not form this in it!
The sharp contrast between what the study says and what the media reports say is not overlooked. In his “Exploration” magazine column, geneticist Razib Khan talks about the media’s report on the study: “But in the media’s introduction, other authors (other than the empire) seem to guide you to complete Different conclusions. They did not tend to ANI is the original Indo-European, but denied that it is.”
Let’s get out of there and ask what Reich is saying now, when so much new data is available? In an interview with Edge last February, when he talked about the Indo-European language originating in the grasslands and then spreading to Europe and South Asia, he said: “Genetics tends to support the grassland hypothesis, because last year we have identified a very strong The pattern, the ancient Nordic sub-blood you saw in Europe today, we now know when it arrived in Europe. It arrived from the grasslands from the east 4,500 years ago… “About India, he said:” In India, you can see, for example, that this deep population mix occurred between 2000 and 4000 years event. It corresponds to the composition time of Rigveda, one of the oldest literary works in the world, which describes a mixed society… “In essence, according to the empire, in roughly the same time frame, we see Indo-European language users dispersed into Europe and South Asia, resulting in large-scale population turmoil.
The era of the “deep population mix incident” referred to by the Empire was based on a paper published in the American Journal of Human Genetics in 2013, led by Priya Moorjani of Harvard Medical School, and shared with others write. These include Reich and Lalji Singh. Even though this article has been used against the transfer of Indo-European publishers to India, the newspaper cannot repeat that!
Here’s what it says in one place: “The dates we report are important to Indian history because they record a period of demographic and cultural change, and the mix between highly differentiated populations becomes variable before it eventually becomes uncommon. Before that, the period of about 1,900-4,200 years ago was a period of profound changes in India, characterized by the non-urbanization of the Indus civilization, the increase in population density in the central and downstream parts of the Ganges system, changes in burial practices, and The Indo-European and Vedic religions may appear for the first time in the subcontinent.”
The study did not “prove” the migration of Indo-European language users because its focus was different: the date of the population mix was found. But it is clear that the authors believe that the results of the study are consistent with the traditional migration date. In fact, the paper continues to link the end of the population mix with the shift in attitudes to ethnicity in ancient texts. It said: “The changes we have recorded from a broad mix to a strict family marriage are reflected in the ancient Indian text.”
Therefore, regardless of the research use of Priya Moorjani et al. in 2013, it is obvious that the authors themselves admit that their research is fully compatible with the Bronze Age migration of Indo-European speakers, and may even strongly suggest. In the email to the writer, Moorjani said a lot. In response to questions about the conclusions of recent papers by Richards et al., about 4,000 years ago, Central Asia had a strong, male-driven gene inflow, and she said she found that their results were “consistent with our model.” She also said that the authors of the new study could obtain “Ancient European Western European samples that were not available when we published them in 2013”, which provided them with more information about the source of South Asian ANI origin.
Therefore, one by one, each of the earlier genetic arguments refuted the case of the Indian-European language speaker’s Bronze Age migration. Review it:
- The first argument is that mtDNA data has no sign of any sign of gene flow in the last 12,500 years from India to India. It was found that this argument was wrong when it was proved that Y-DNA did show the main gene flow from India to India in the past 4,000 to 4500 years, especially when R1a now accounts for 17.5% of Indian male blood. The reason for the different performance of mtDNA data is the serious gender bias in the migration of the Bronze Age.
- The second argument put forward is that the R1a lineage shows greater diversity in India than elsewhere, so it must originate in India and spread outward. This proved to be wrong; because a large-scale global study on the R1a haplogroup published last year showed that India’s R1a lineage mostly belongs to the three sub-categories of R1a-Z93, which are only 4,000 to 4,500 years old. Between.
- The third argument is that far from the Indian-European migration of India, tens of thousands of years ago, India’s old groups, ANI and ASI, This argument is wrong at the outset. As an initial document on the theoretical structure, ANI is a combination of multi-transition, including the migration of Indo-European languages.
There are two other things to keep in mind when reviewing all of this evidence. The first is how many studies in different disciplines has been an important symbol of Indian history in a particular period: around 2000 BC. According to research by Priya Moorjani, this is a large-scale start of mixed populations, leaving the population groups anywhere in the subcontinent unaffected. Onge in the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands is the only one we know that is completely unaffected by a turbulent period. According to David Poznik et al.’s 2016 study on the Y chromosome, 2000 B.B. began to split in the “most striking” way around Z93’s dominant R1a branch Z93, indicating “rapid growth and expansion.” Finally, based on the long history of archaeological research, we also know that 2000 BC was the period when the civilization of the Indus Valley began to decline. For anyone who looks at all of this data objectively, it is difficult to avoid the feeling that the loss of Indian historical problems has finally come true.
Second, many of the studies mentioned in this paper are global, both in terms of their questions and in terms of sampling and research methods. For example, the Poznik study was derived from the years of R1a Z93 lineage splitting 4,000 – 4,500 years ago, studying the major Y-DNA amplification not only in India but also in the other four continents. In the Americas, this study demonstrated the expansion of haploid Q1a-M3 approximately 15,000 years ago, which is consistent with the general acceptance of the initial colonization of the continent. Therefore, it is not only in India but all over the world. The more the global immigration situation is filled, the more difficult it is to overturn the consensus on how the world is populated.
No one better explains what is happening now than Reich: “In the past few years, what happened has happened very quickly, significantly and powerfully, and is an explosive growth of genome-wide research based on the human history of modern and ancient DNA. And genomics technology and ancient DNA technology. Basically, this is the current gold rush; this is a new technology, technology is being applied to all the technologies we can apply, and there are many unresolved fruits, many gold nuggets scattered on the ground, it was picked up very quickly.
So far, we have only studied the migration of Indo-European languages, because this is the most controversial and controversial among historical events. But you must not lose the bigger picture: R1a lineage only accounts for 17.5% of Indian male lineage and the proportion of female lineage is even smaller. The vast majority of Indian ancestors are mainly attributed to other migrants, starting with the original African migration from about 55,000 to 65,000 years ago, or agricultural-related migration from West Asia, possibly after 10,000 BC Many waves, or Asian-Asian migrations, such as Munda from East Asia, whose history has not yet been determined, and the migration of Tibetan-Burmese speakers from East Asia such as Garo, their appointments The determination has not yet been determined.
It is very clear that we are a multi-source civilization, not a single-source civilization, drawing on its cultural impulses, traditions and practices from various bloodlines and immigration history. African immigrants, pioneering, fearless explorers who first discovered and settled in this land, whose lineage is still the cornerstone of our population; those who later arrived with a basket of farming techniques and established the Indus Valley civilization. People, their cultural ideas and practices may enrich many of our traditions today; those from East Asia may bring about the practice of rice planting and everything that comes with it; those who later use Sanskrit and its related beliefs and practices The language, and the people who reshape our society in a fundamental way; those who even later trade or conquer and choose to stay together, have mixed together to contribute to this civilization we call India. We are all immigrants.